This is a question that is asked quite frequently, and before the new user profile page was released – you were forced to build your own database query on a specific site. Luckily that’s not needed anymore, since you can find the progression in the user interface, even if it’s kind of hidden with a small gray gear icon.
Go to your user profile page (click the top bar with your picture on it) and click the little gear icon to the right of the Next Badge element.
Once there, on the top left of the modal dialogue, you can filter by available, all, gold, silver and bronze. At first you’ll see the badges you’ve already have been awarded and then one with less effort (?) to get next. Check it out and leave the database scripting to the SE-employee.
Good luck tracking your next badge